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England and Wales



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About this dataset

This dataset provides Census 2021 estimates that classify usual residents aged 5 years and over in England and Wales by ethnic group, by provision of unpaid care, and by general health. The estimates are as at Census Day, 21 March 2021.

Protecting personal data

Sometimes we need to make changes to data if it is possible to identify individuals. This is known as statistical disclosure control. In Census 2021, we:

  • Swapped records (targeted record swapping), for example, if a household was likely to be identified in datasets because it has unusual characteristics, we swapped the record with a similar one from a nearby small area. Very unusual households could be swapped with one in a nearby local authority.
  • Added small changes to some counts (cell key perturbation), for example, we might change a count of four to a three or a five. This might make small differences between tables depending on how the data are broken down when we applied perturbation.

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About the variables

Ethnic group (9 categories)

Description: The ethnic group that the person completing the census feels they belong to. This could be based on their culture, family background, identity or physical appearance. Respondents could choose one out of 19 tick-box response categories, including write-in response options.

Comparability with 2011: Broadly comparable. The question about the ethnic group people feel they belong to is self-identified and is subjectively meaningful to the person answering the question. This means that how a person chooses to identify can change over time. We have included a new Roma category next to the Gypsy or Irish Traveller tick-box within the White category. We have also added a write-in option for those selecting African within the Black, Caribbean or Black British category. This means that a more specific ethnic background could be recorded.


General health (3 categories)

Description: A person's assessment of the general state of their health from very good to very bad. This assessment is not based on a person's health over any specified period of time.

Comparability with 2011: Highly comparable


Provision of unpaid care (5 categories)

Description: An unpaid carer may look after, give help or support to anyone who has long-term physical or mental ill-health conditions, illness or problems related to old age.
This does not include any activities as part of paid employment. This help can be within or outside of the carer's household.

Comparability with 2011: Broadly comparable. If you use this variable to compare with the same one used in the 2011 Census, you can combine the categories "less than 9 hours" with "10 to 19 hours" and "20 to 34 hours" with "35 to 49 hours".

The combination of the categories "less than 9 hours" and "10 to 19 hours" means that this does not exactly match the Census 2011 variable which had a "1 to 19 hours" category. It can still be used when comparing with data from the 2011 Census although there is a difference of one hour of care.


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