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England and Wales




National identity

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About this dataset

This dataset provides Census 2021 estimates that classify usual residents in England and Wales by their national identity. The estimates are as at Census Day, 21 March 2021.

Protecting personal data

Sometimes we need to make changes to data if it is possible to identify individuals. This is known as statistical disclosure control. In Census 2021, we:

  • Swapped records (targeted record swapping), for example, if a household was likely to be identified in datasets because it has unusual characteristics, we swapped the record with a similar one from a nearby small area. Very unusual households could be swapped with one in a nearby local authority.
  • Added small changes to some counts (cell key perturbation), for example, we might change a count of four to a three or a five. This might make small differences between tables depending on how the data are broken down when we applied perturbation.

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About the variables

National identity (detailed) (91 categories)

Description: Someone's national identity is a self-determined assessment of their own identity, it could be the country or countries where they feel they belong or think of as home. It is not dependent on ethnic group or citizenship. Respondents could select more than one national identity.

Quality information: The increase since the 2011 Census in people identifying as 'British' and fall in people identifying as 'English' may partly reflect true changes in self-perception. It is also likely to reflect that 'British' replaced 'English' as the first response option listed on the questionnaire in England.

Comparability with 2011: Broadly comparable. In this variable we have combined the UK and other identities category into one category. Sub-totals have also not been included.


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