Labour Market Profile - Harlow

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The profile brings together data from several sources. Details about these and related terminology are given in the definitions section.

All figures are the most recent available.

Resident Population

  Harlow
(numbers)
East
(numbers)
Great Britain
(numbers)
All people 84,600 6,018,400 62,756,300
Males 40,900 2,962,500 30,890,900
Females 43,600 3,055,900 31,865,400
Source: ONS mid-year population estimates
  Harlow
(numbers)
Harlow
(%)
East
(%)
Great Britain
(%)
All people aged 16-64 53,500 63.2 62.0 63.5
Males aged 16-64 26,200 64.1 62.7 64.3
Females aged 16-64 27,400 62.8 61.4 62.8
Source: ONS mid-year population estimates
Notes:   % is a proportion of total population

Labour Supply

  Harlow
(numbers)
Harlow
(%)
East
(%)
Great Britain
(%)
All people
Economically active† 43,500 81.9 79.9 77.3
In employment† 40,900 76.7 75.7 72.4
Employees† 35,500 66.4 64.8 61.9
Self employed† 5,400 10.3 10.7 10.0
Unemployed (model-based)§ 2,800 6.5 5.2 6.2
Males
Economically active† 24,500 94.5 86.4 82.8
In employment† 23,500 90.6 81.6 77.3
Employees† 18,900 72.8 67.0 63.3
Self employed† # # 14.5 13.6
Unemployed§ ! ! 5.4 6.5
Females
Economically active† 19,000 69.5 73.6 71.9
In employment† 17,400 63.1 69.9 67.5
Employees† 16,600 60.1 62.6 60.6
Self employed† ! ! 7.0 6.5
Unemployed§ # # 4.9 6.0
Source: ONS annual population survey
#   Sample size too small for reliable estimate (see definitions)
!   Estimate is not available since sample size is disclosive (see definitions)
†   -   numbers are for those aged 16 and over, % are for those aged 16-64
§   -   numbers and % are for those aged 16 and over. % is a proportion of economically active
  Harlow
(level)
Harlow
(%)
East
(%)
Great Britain
(%)
All people
Total 9,400 18.1 20.1 22.7
Student ! ! 25.2 26.7
looking after family/home # # 28.0 25.3
temporary sick ! ! 1.9 2.2
long-term sick # # 17.6 21.5
discouraged ! ! 0.6 0.5
retired ! ! 15.8 14.5
other # # 11.0 9.3
 
wants a job 4,600 48.3 24.9 25.0
does not want a job 4,900 51.7 75.1 75.0
Source: ONS annual population survey
#   Sample size too small for reliable estimate (see definitions)
!   Estimate is not available since sample size is disclosive (see definitions)
Notes:   numbers are for those aged 16-64.
  % is a proportion of those economically inactive, except total, which is a proportion of those aged 16-64
  Harlow
(numbers)
Harlow
(%)
East
(%)
Great Britain
(%)
Soc 2010 major group 1-3 13,900 34.8 44.5 44.3
1 Managers, directors and senior officials # # 10.7 10.2
2 Professional occupations 8,200 20.1 19.6 19.7
3 Associate professional & technical # # 14.2 14.1
Soc 2010 major group 4-5 10,800 27.0 22.1 21.5
4 Administrative & secretarial # # 11.3 10.7
5 Skilled trades occupations 6,700 16.4 10.7 10.7
Soc 2010 major group 6-7 7,400 18.5 16.5 17.1
6 Caring, leisure and Other Service occupations 5,200 12.7 9.3 9.2
7 Sales and customer service occs # # 7.2 7.8
Soc 2010 major group 8-9 7,800 19.6 16.8 17.1
8 Process plant & machine operatives # # 6.3 6.3
9 Elementary occupations # # 10.5 10.8
Source: ONS annual population survey
#   Sample size too small for reliable estimate (see definitions)
Notes:   Numbers and % are for those of 16+
  % is a proportion of all persons in employment
  Harlow
(level)
Harlow
(%)
East
(%)
Great Britain
(%)
Individual levels
NVQ4 and above 15,100 29.0 33.1 36.0
NVQ3 and above 23,100 44.2 54.1 56.7
NVQ2 and above 30,000 57.5 72.1 73.3
NVQ1 and above 44,500 85.2 86.0 85.0
Other qualifications # # 5.9 6.2
No qualifications 5,300 10.2 8.1 8.8
Source: ONS annual population survey
#   Sample size too small for reliable estimate (see definitions)
Notes:   For an explanation of the qualification levels see the definitions section.
  Numbers and % are for those of aged 16-64
  % is a proportion of resident population of area aged 16-64
  Harlow
(pounds)
East
(pounds)
Great Britain
(pounds)
Gross weekly pay
Full-time workers 479.1 539.1 520.8
Male full-time workers 479.1 586.8 561.5
Female full-time workers 476.8 471.7 463.0
Hourly pay- excluding overtime
Full-time workers 11.82 13.62 13.15
Male full-time workers 10.90 14.30 13.70
Female full-time workers 12.75 12.58 12.34
Source: ONS annual survey of hours and earnings - resident analysis
Note:   Median earnings in pounds for employees living in the area.

Out-Of-Work Benefits

The Jobseeker's Allowance (JSA) is payable to people under pensionable age who are available for, and actively seeking, work of at least 40 hours a week.

  Harlow
(numbers)
Harlow
(%)
East
(%)
Great Britain
(%)
All people 1,134 2.1 1.3 1.8
Males 674 2.6 1.7 2.3
Females 460 1.7 1.0 1.3
Source: ONS Jobseeker's Allowance with rates and proportions
Note:   % is a proportion of resident population of area aged 16-64 and gender
  Harlow
(level)
Harlow
(%)
East
(%)
Great Britain
(%)
Aged 16 to 64
Total 1,135 2.1 1.3 1.8
Up to 6 months 680 1.3 0.8 1.0
Over 6 and up to 12 months 145 0.3 0.2 0.3
over 12 months 310 0.6 0.3 0.5
Aged 18 to 24
Total 185 2.8 2.1 2.6
Up to 6 months 140 2.1 1.5 1.8
Over 6 and up to 12 months 20 0.3 0.3 0.5
over 12 months 25 0.4 0.2 0.4
Aged 25 to 49
Total 630 2.1 1.4 1.9
Up to 6 months 385 1.3 0.8 1.1
Over 6 and up to 12 months 85 0.3 0.2 0.3
over 12 months 160 0.5 0.3 0.6
Aged 50 to 64
Total 315 2.2 1.1 1.4
Up to 6 months 155 1.1 0.6 0.7
Over 6 and up to 12 months 35 0.3 0.1 0.2
over 12 months 125 0.8 0.3 0.5
Source: ONS Jobseeker's Allowance by age and duration with proportions
Note:   % is number of persons claiming JSA as a proportion of resident population of the same age
  Harlow
(numbers)
Harlow
(%)
East
(%)
Great Britain
(%)
Total claimants 6,780 12.8 10.0 12.5
By statistical group
Job seekers 1,160 2.2 1.4 1.9
ESA and incapacity benefits 3,130 5.9 4.9 6.3
Lone parents 870 1.6 1.0 1.1
Carers 700 1.3 1.3 1.5
Others on income related benefits 190 0.4 0.3 0.3
Disabled 630 1.2 1.0 1.1
Bereaved 100 0.2 0.2 0.2
Main out-of-work benefits† 5,350 10.1 7.5 9.7
Source: DWP benefit claimants - working age client group
†   Main out-of-work benefits includes the groups: job seekers, ESA and incapacity benefits, lone parents and others on income related benefits. See the Definitions and Explanations below for details
Note:   % is a proportion of resident population of area aged 16-64

Labour Demand

  Harlow
(jobs)
Harlow
(density)
East
(density)
Great Britain
(density)
Jobs density 46,000 0.86 0.78 0.80
Source: ONS jobs density
Notes:   The density figures represent the ratio of total jobs to population aged 16-64.
  Total jobs includes employees, self-employed, government-supported trainees and HM Forces
  Harlow
(employee jobs)
Harlow
(%)
East
(%)
Great Britain
(%)
Total employee jobs 38,800 - - -
Full-time 24,900 64.1 65.3 67.7
Part-time 13,900 35.9 34.7 32.3
Employee jobs by industry
Primary Services (A-B: agriculture and mining) - - 0.3 0.3
Energy and Water (D-E) - - 0.9 1.1
Manufacturing (C) 3,800 9.8 8.8 8.5
Construction (F) 1,300 3.3 4.8 4.4
Services (G-S) 33,600 86.5 85.2 85.7
Wholesale and retail, including motor trades (G) 7,900 20.3 17.7 15.9
Transport storage (H) 1,100 2.9 4.7 4.5
Accomodation and food services(I) 1,800 4.5 6.3 7.0
Information and communication (J) 1,200 3.2 3.5 4.0
Financial and other business services(K-N) 8,600 22.1 22.2 21.8
Public admin, education and health (O-Q) 11,800 30.3 26.6 28.0
Other Services (R-S) 1,200 3.1 4.2 4.6
Source: ONS business register and employment survey
-   Data unavailable
Notes:   % is a proportion of total employee jobs
  Employee jobs excludes self-employed, government-supported trainees and HM Forces
  Data excludes farm-based aggriculture
  Harlow
(pounds)
East
(pounds)
Great Britain
(pounds)
Gross weekly pay
Full-time workers 581.9 505.8 520.2
Male full-time workers 613.2 548.6 560.6
Female full-time workers 480.0 443.3 462.5
Hourly pay - excluding overtime
Full-time workers 14.31 12.61 13.14
Male full-time workers 14.94 13.17 13.68
Female full-time workers 12.82 11.79 12.33
Source: ONS annual survey of hours and earnings - workplace analysis
Note:   Median earnings in pounds for employees working in the area.

The Jobcentre Plus vacancies table has been removed as the series is no longer being updated and there are no suitable alternative sources available. Historic vacancy datasets remain available through the wizard and advanced query functions.

Businesses

  Harlow
(numbers)
Harlow
(%)
East
(numbers)
East
(%)
Enterprises
Micro (0 to 9) 1,975 85.7 201,660 88.9
Small (10 to 49) 260 11.3 20,845 9.2
Medium (50 to 249) 50 2.2 3,570 1.6
Large (250+) 15 0.7 865 0.4
Total 2,305 - 226,940 -
Local Units
Micro (0 to 9) 2,305 79.1 223,585 84.0
Small (10 to 49) 465 16.0 34,695 13.0
Medium (50 to 249) 130 4.5 7,035 2.6
Large (250+) 15 0.5 965 0.4
Total 2,915 - 266,275 -
Source: Inter Departmental Business Register (ONS)

Note:   % is as a proportion of total (enterprises or local units)

Definitions and Explanations

Resident Population
The estimated population of an area includes all those usually resident in the area, whatever their nationality. HM Forces stationed outside the United Kingdom are excluded but foreign forces stationed here are included. Students are taken to be resident at their term-time address.
Labour Supply

Labour supply consists of people who are employed, as well as those people defined as unemployed or economically inactive, who can be considered to be potential labour supply. Information in this section relates to the characteristics of people living in an area.

Most labour supply data comes from the Annual Population Survey (APS). The APS is the largest regular household survey in the United Kingdom. It includes data from the Labour Force Survey (LFS), plus further sample boosts in England, Wales and Scotland. The survey includes data from a sample of around 256,000 people aged 16 and over.

As APS estimates are based on samples, they are subject to sampling variability. This means that if another sample for the same period were drawn, a different estimate might be produced. In general, the larger the number of people in a sample, the smaller the variation between estimates. Estimates for smaller areas such as local authorities are therefore less reliable than those for larger areas such as regions. When the sample size is too small to produce reliable estimates, the estimates are replaced with a #.

Economically Active
Economically active
People who are either in employment or unemployed.
Economic activity rate
People, who are economically active, expressed as a percentage of all people.
In employment
People who did some paid work in the reference week (whether as an employee or self employed); those who had a job that they were temporarily away from (eg, on holiday); those on government-supported training and employment programmes; and those doing unpaid family work.
Employment rate
The number of people in employment expressed as a percentage of all people aged 16-64.
Employees and self employed
The division between employees and self employed is based on survey respondents' own assessment of their employment status. The percentage show the number in each category as a percentage of all people aged 16-64. The sum of employees and self employed will not equal the in employment figure due to the inclusion of those on government-supported training and employment programmes, and those doing unpaid family work in the latter.
Unemployed
Refers to people without a job who were available to start work in the two weeks following their interview and who had either looked for work in the four weeks prior to interview or were waiting to start a job they had already obtained.
Model-based unemployed

As unemployed form a small percentage of the population, the APS unemployed estimates within local authorities are based on very small samples so for many areas would be unreliable. To overcome this ONS has developed a statistical model that provides better estimates of total unemployed for unitary authorities and local authority districts (unemployment estimates for counties are direct survey estimates). Model-based estimates are not produced for male or female unemployed.

The model-based estimate improves on the APS estimate by borrowing strength from the measure of those claiming Jobseeker's Allowance to produce an estimate that is more precise (i.e. has a smaller confidence interval). The amount of people claiming Jobseeker's Allowance is not itself a measure of unemployment but is strongly correlated with unemployment, and, as it is an administrative count, is known without sampling error. The gain in precision is greatest for areas with smaller sample sizes.

Unemployment rate
Unemployed as a percentage of the economically active population.
Economically inactive
Economically inactive
People who are neither in employment nor unemployed. This group includes, for example, all those who were looking after a home or retired.
Wanting a job
People not in employment who want a job but are not classed as unemployed because they have either not sought work in the last four weeks or are not available to start work.
Not wanting a job
People who are neither in employment nor unemployed and who do not want a job.
Occupation
Occupations are classified according to the Standard Occupation Classification 2000. Descriptions of the job titles included in each code are available in the SOC manuals.
Qualifications

Qualifications data are only be available from the APS for calendar year periods, for example, Jan to Dec 2005. The variables show the total number of people who are qualified at a particular level and above, so data in this table are not additive. Separate figures for each NVQ level are available in the full Annual Population Survey data set (wizard/advanced query).

The trade apprenticeships are split 50/50 between NVQ level 2 and 3. This follows ONS policy for presenting qualifications data in publications. Separate counts for trade apprenticeships can be obtained from the full APS data set (wizard/advanced query).

No qualifications
No formal qualifications held.
Other qualifications
includes foreign qualifications and some professional qualifications.
NVQ 1 equivalent
e.g. fewer than 5 GCSEs at grades A-C, foundation GNVQ, NVQ 1, intermediate 1 national qualification (Scotland) or equivalent.
NVQ 2 equivalent
e.g. 5 or more GCSEs at grades A-C, intermediate GNVQ, NVQ 2, intermediate 2 national qualification (Scotland) or equivalent.
NVQ 3 equivalent
e.g. 2 or more A levels, advanced GNVQ, NVQ 3, 2 or more higher or advanced higher national qualifications (Scotland) or equivalent.
NVQ 4 equivalent and above
e.g. HND, Degree and Higher Degree level qualifications or equivalent.
Earnings by Residence

The figures show the median earnings in pounds for employees living in the area who are on adults rates of pay and whose pay was not affected by absence. Figures for earnings come from the Annual Survey of Hours and Earnings (ASHE). The ASHE is based on a 1 per cent sample of employees, information on whose earnings and hours is obtained from employers. The survey does not cover self-employed. Information relates to a pay period in April.

The earnings information collected relates to gross pay before tax, national insurance or other deductions, and excludes payments in kind. It is restricted to earnings relating to the survey pay period and so excludes payments of arrears from another period made during the survey period; any payments due as a result of a pay settlement but not yet paid at the time of the survey will also be excluded.

Out-Of-Work Benefits
Jobseeker's Allowance

This is the number of people claiming Jobseeker's Allowance (JSA) and National Insurance credits at Jobcentre Plus local offices. People claiming JSA must declare that they are out of work, capable of, available for and actively seeking work during the week in which the claim is made.

The percentage figures express the number of claimants resident in an area as a percentage of the population aged 16-64 resident in that area.

The total JSA claimants is mostly derived from the Jobcentre Plus computer records. For various reasons, e.g. a claimant's National Insurance number is not known, a few claims have to be dealt with manually. These clerical claims, which amount to less than 1 per cent of the total, are counted separately and not analysed in as much detail as the computerised claims. The count of total JSA claimants includes clerical claims, but only the computerised claims are analysed by age and duration.

Introduction of Universal Credit

Tables for Jobseeker's Allowance do not include claimants of Universal Credit who are claiming benefits principally for the reason of being unemployed.

A list of Jobcentres where Universal Credit is available can be found on the GOV.UK website.

New tables including claimants of Universal Credit will be introduced as soon as possible.

DWP Working-Age Client Group

The number of working-age people who are claiming one or more main DWP benefits. The main benefits are: bereavement benefit, carer's allowance, disability living allowance, ESA and incapacity benefit, severe disablement allowance, income support, jobseeker's allowance, and widow's benefit. The age at which women reach State Pension age is gradually increasing from 60 to 65 between April 2010 and April 2020. Throughout this period, only women below State Pension age are counted as working age benefit claimants."

The total count is broken down by statistical groups. These categorise each person according to the main reason why they are claiming benefit. Each client is classified to a single group.

Benefits are arranged hierarchically and claimants are assigned to a group according to the top most benefit they receive. Thus a person who is a lone parent and receives Incapacity Benefit would be classified as incapacity benefits. Consequently, the group lone parent will not contain all lone parents as some will be included in the incapacity benefits group and Job seekers groups.

Main out-of-work benefits consists of the groups: job seekers, ESA and incapacity benefits, lone parents and others on income related benefits.

These groups have been chosen to best represent a count of all those benefit recipients who cannot be in full-time employment as part of their condition of entitlement. Those claiming solely Bereavement Benefits or Disability Living Allowance (DLA) are not included as these are not out-of-work or income based benefits. DLA is paid to those needing help with personal care. These people can, and some will, be in full-time employment. If DLA claimants are also in receipt of JSA, IS, ESA or Incapacity Benefits in addition to DLA they will be counted under the relevant statistical group. In addition, we exclude those claiming solely carer's benefits or claiming carer's benefits alongside income support, as DWP does not pursue active labour market policies for this group. Carers benefits are paid to those with full time caring responsibilities. The group entitled to Carer's benefits alongside Income Support (IS) includes around 86,000 claimants and has been stable over time.

This Nomis series is different to that published in the Office for National Statistics (ONS) Labour Market Statistics Bulletin (table 25) and on the DWP website at http://tabulation-tool.dwp.gov.uk/100pc/wa/tabtool_wa.html (against the link entitled "One-Click" Key Out-of-Work Benefits). This Nomis series uses DWP Jobseeker's Allowance numbers, whilst the other two series use the ONS Jobseeker's Allowance figures, using different methods and reference periods.

Labour Demand

Labour demand includes jobs available within the area.

Jobs Density

The level of jobs per resident aged 16-64. For example, a job density of 1.0 would mean that there is one job for every resident aged 16-64.

The total number of jobs is a workplace-based measure and comprises employee jobs, self-employed, government-supported trainees and HM Forces. The number of residents aged 16-64 figures used to calculate jobs densities are based on the relevant mid-year population estimates.

Employee Jobs

The number of jobs held by employees. Employee jobs excludes self-employed, government-supported trainees and HM Forces, so this count will be smaller than the total jobs figure shown in the Jobs density table. The information comes from the Business Register and Employment Survey (BRES) - an employer survey conducted in September of each year. The BRES records a job at the location of an employee's workplace (rather than at the location of the business's main office).

Full-time and part-time:
In the BRES, part-time employees are those working for 30 or fewer hours per week.
Note
All figures exclude farm-based agriculture
Earnings by Workplace

The figures show the median earnings in pounds for employees working in the area who are on adults rates of pay and whose pay was not affected by absence. Figures for earnings come from the Annual Survey of Hours and Earnings (ASHE). The ASHE is based on a 1 per cent sample of employees, information on whose earnings and hours is obtained from employers. The survey does not cover self-employed. In 2004 information related to the pay period which included 21 April.

The earnings information collected relates to gross pay before tax, national insurance or other deductions, and excludes payments in kind. It is restricted to earnings relating to the survey pay period and so excludes payments of arrears from another period made during the survey period; any payments due as a result of a pay settlement but not yet paid at the time of the survey will also be excluded.

UK Business Counts

The data contained in the table are compiled from an extract taken from the Inter-Departmental Business Register (IDBR) recording the position of units as at March of the reference year. The IDBR contains information on VAT traders and PAYE employers in a statistical register which provides the basis for the Office for National Statistics to conduct surveys of businesses.

The table presents analysis of businesses at both Enterprise and Local Unit level. An Enterprise is the smallest combination of legal units (generally based on VAT and/or PAYE records) which has a certain degree of autonomy within an Enterprise Group. An individual site (for example a factory or shop) in an enterprise is called a local unit.

The employment information on the IDBR is drawn mainly from the Business Register Employment Survey (BRES). Because this is based on a sample of enterprises, estimates from previous returns and from other ONS surveys have also been used. For the smallest units, either PAYE jobs or employment imputed from VAT turnover is used.

Estimates in the table are rounded to prevent disclosure.

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Source: Office for National Statistics

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